WOMEN IN JUDAISM
No one can deny that woman motif accompanies humanity for ages. It always was and probably alway will be present in art, literature and social discussions. But not only that. Women are actually real human beings, but some of cultures seem to forget about that.
In Judaism, every person, in accordance with the Torah, is determined by another role in life.Man should accept the reality that God created according to his will. This principle, like many others in religion, there is no transformation of socio - cultural. Nevertheless, the role of women in the last centuries has taken on a new dimension in the world of Judaism. And at least in part of this world.
The birth of a girl accompanied by a ceremony in Judaism Simchat Bat, a symbolic greeting and a covenant with God. Your little girl is given in the prayer on the first Shabbat after the birth.Jewish girl becomes a woman aged 12 - 13 years. Solemn celebration of the Bat mitzvah, which begins a period of personal responsibility (now) women of their actions for compliance with the law and religious principles. The girls from an early age they learn all the principles of household management in accordance with the provisions of the Talmud and the ritual purity of food items.They learn about the traditions, rituals, rules and prohibitions on their daily lives. Since women are not required to explore theological knowledge, and once even had an obligation to go to a religious Jewish school, and to participate in services, as opposed to boys. This does not mean that it did not. History knows many women scribes.
If a woman wants to re-enter into marriage is such a possibility. May do so only after 90 days from the time when her husband throws her hands in a get, or divorce document, written personally by him or his agent in the presence of a witness.
A woman has many religious duties. For example, lights Sabbath candles and refuses blessing before the meal. Must pray at least once a day, or the canonical texts of spontaneous prayer.
Historically, the status of women in Judaism was very low. It was not worthy of a covenant with God, because it was considered as a source of impurity. Any midwives was "unclean" for 7 days after the birth of a son, and 14 days after the birth of her daughter. Could come to the temple only after 40 days after birth a son, and after 1980 - after the birth of her daughter. After these days of purification mother had to offer in the temple of a young pigeon or turtledove (sin offering) and one lamb (burnt offering). She could not read the Torah publicly in the synagogue and did not have to take a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. She could not stay longer with a strange man, nor talk to him. She had equal rights to children and slaves. After entering into marriage became the property of her husband, and after his death, had no right to inheritance. Men were free to move away from their wives in certain situations. Showing the so-called bill of divorce, the man could leave, or even expelled from his home wife (unfaithful), not worrying about its future.
Most of the principles of Judaism has survived in nearly or completely changed shape until modern times. A clear change in this regard took place only in the eighteenth century with the modern women's emancipation and the birth of the so-called. Jewish Enlightenment movement.Further moves towards equality in society for men and women occurred in many varieties of modern Judaism, of course, outside of orthodox Judaism, which still adheres to all the old Talmudic law, including provisions relating to women. The Orthodox church, men and women sit separately. Contacts between men and women governed Halacha. It prohibits two people stayed on the opposite sex in a closed room. This is allowed only in case of husband and wife, parent and child and adult with a girl for 3 years, or are a boy of nine years of age. The most radical and orthodox followers of Judaism are Hasidim. Chasydkom not even allowed to read newspapers, or use other media. They live in a reality created by men. They have a very limited career opportunities. They can work, inter alia, as a kindergarten teacher, teachers, dressmakers, and shop vendors. The training is almost the exclusive privilege of men. I wrote the law, because they are determined by the Jewess Chassids Lilit term, which means liberal and ambitious woman who can not devote himself to the family.
At the turn of the century in many Jewish circles moral reform was introduced. Leniency has, for example, the principles of proper appearance. Women began to wear fashionable clothes, and some have abandoned the wearing of wigs and other head coverings. Previously, women could not show their hair to anyone except her husband. Have access to education and develop their interests. In Reform synagogues and women have equal status with the opposite sex. They do not have to sit away from the men in the church services, holders of honorary presidents honorable functions synagogues, and even allowed them to feature rabbi.
WOMEN IN CHRISTIANITY
The presence of women in Christianity has always been visible. In the Bible you can find many parables and history, with the participation of women. Were frequently present at Christ. In the gospel according to Luke. Matthew says Joseph took the body, wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, and in his own new tomb which he had hewn in the rock. Before entering the tomb rolled a great stone and walked away. Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were there, sitting opposite the tomb. (Mt 27, 59 -61) also applies to women as the first early morning went to the tomb of Jesus.
Model the role of women in this religion is of course the mother of Jesus - Mary. Her humility, trust in God, hard work and cleanliness should be the benchmark for every Christian. Pope John Paul II in his Letter to Women wrote: fullest expression of "feminine genius," the Church sees in Mary and find in it a source of constant inspiration. Mary called herself the handmaid of the Lord. Through obedience to the Word of God adopted a privileged vocation - not easy - wife and mother of the family of Nazareth. By serving God also gave people at the service: the service of love.
Maria is not the only important figure in Christianity. Over 2,000 years of its history the church beatified and canonized a lot of women from different ages and nationalities. These include not only religious, martyrs reflecting life in defense of religion, but also the mother sacrificing love for their children.
Women can study theology, but in the Catholic Church are not admitted to the priesthood. Of course, I mean the ministerial priesthood, as required to fulfill the responsibility of the royal priesthood of all members of the Church. John Paul II issued a ruling on this issue in his apostolic letter Ordinatio sacerdotalis, in which he stated that the church does not have such a power to give ordination to women.
Adam Szostkiewicz written in his article said that women in early Christian communities could play a range of important functions. Particular concern surrounded the widow. In the twelfth and thirteenth century, a rapidly growing female monasteries give learning opportunities to many women.
Father Maciej Zieba says that women in the Middle Ages had an impact on both the ecclesial life and politics. They could devote themselves to various works. They were both in koronczarstwie, baking, księgarstwie and blacksmithing, złotnictwie, locksmithery or brewing.Do not have to take her husband's surname after marriage, and continue its disposal of their assets. According to her father M. Zięby role and importance of women in society decreased with the development of secular law.
But we can not fail to mention the heinous deeds of the church over women, when the dust burned at the stake as witches.
A. Szostkiewicz in the aforementioned article claims that in the history of the Church are two intertwined strands of view, the position of women in society. One source was a kind of hostility towards women, the second derives from the belief in fair treatment of all people regardless of gender.
The desire for self-control representatives of the opposite sex, primary disorder of harmony and unity between women and men, results from the human tendency to sin, which in turn is a consequence of original sin.
WOMEN IN ISLAM
The role of women in Islam, Allah described. He gave her a different nature than man, which specifies its place in society. It may take on different roles, but among the most important are mentioned: the role of mother, wife, daughter, sister, grandmother, niece, niece, and premiums.Each of these social roles in Islam is associated with very defined principles.
Women are encouraged in Islam to marry after they become physically mature. Between spouses is to be concluded nikah, or marriage contract that contains 6 to the conditions that the marriage was recognized and enforceable. In one of them mentions that a woman entering into marriage may not be in time iddah, that is, the waiting period. It must of course be unmarried.
Although a Muslim can marry a Jew or a Christian (if chaste and unmarried) is a Muslim can marry only a believer of Islam. Islam prohibits the abuse of women and allow them to demand a divorce.
Joining in the marriage team generates specific roles and responsibilities of women. It becomes primarily responsible for the family and its moral foundation and the atmosphere at home. She has taken various decisions in the home environment and is responsible for their consequences.It has also ensure proper education of the younger generation. In shaping the children's religious education is essential. Islam assigns women in this field an important position, since it is the first woman to host a man of Islam, a woman was the first martyr dying for the sake of this faith.A woman has to uphold the morality of his family. Maybe even give a man advice, oppose any shortcomings of the principles of religion, corruption, forgery, lies. The main goal of these treatments is to build strong and healthy society.
For ladies can effectively carry out their vocation should first receive a good education. They learn primarily medicine, nursing, tailoring, embroidery. Can attend mosques for prayers, lectures and various activities. In addition to the study may also take such a job as a social worker or teacher, if it does not affect adversely affect their household duties. Often it is necessary for economic reasons the family. Although the maintenance of women and the house is primarily a man. He has to protect her and care about her welfare.
Since women, like the man expected to be interest in social life and participation in the political life of the country. Some even mention the religious obligation, for belonging to the Islamist party to power in the resurgence of religious principles.
Even if a woman wants to engage in work or politics, is not eligible for the senior positions, including where to direct itself seemed would take decisions or judgments. It can serve as a juror and the court or be a member of the advisory body to the Caliph. For known exceptions include Pakistanka Benazir Bhutto and Iranian Szirin Ebadi.
Benazir Bhutto, she studied political science and history at Harvard and Oxford. In 1982 he was president of the Pakistan Peoples Party, in 1988 and 1993 to 1996 she served as Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
However, Szirin Ebadi was among the first women in Iran as a judge. The whole world may know her as she received the Nobel Peace Prize for championing human rights, especially women and children, and contribute to the democratization of Iran.
Muslim women have a lot of bans on the private sphere and the public to be observed.
They must not reside with niespokrewnionym man in solitary confinement. This is only possible in very specific situations and only in the company of mahr, or a relative, he can not marry. For these exceptional circumstances include: saving lives, healing, learning Islam, wedding ceremony, meal, law enforcement and emergency aid, such as accident or disaster.
In public life, a woman can come into contact with men niespokrewnionymi, also only in the company of mahr in the street, in the mosque, service shops, institutions, hospital, classroom, etc.
In all these situations and places contacts between men and women must be kept to a minimum. Women should be as far away, separated from the representatives of the opposite sex. Valid them modest behavior, lowering the eyes during a conversation.
Has certain restrictions on travel. She must not depart alone more than 24 hours away. It is related to its security.
It is also a number of indications concerning the dress code. There are two areas that must be obscured in the presence of other people. Ghalida Aura, is the area between the chest and knee, and Aura Chafifa - the whole body except face and hands. They can also use perfume.
Muslims claim that in Islam there is no problem of equality of men and women, it is rather a problem of Western cultures. Do not agree with the charges, allegedly mistreated women.Sacred Law prohibits Szari'atu violence against women, but this does not mean that the law is not abused or over-interpreted. That has happened in the case of governments mudżachedinów and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. In 1993, Iran accused the United Nations (...) women receive citizenship. In 1993, Iran strengthened, inter alia, provisions for clothing. Women must wear czarczaf under penalty of flogging. On the 41st International film festival in the Spanish city of San Sebastian, the first prize, the Golden Shell, received an Iranian film "Sarah", talking about the brutal discrimination against women in Islamic religious state. The film "Sarah" could not be shown in Iran.
Today, the role of women worldwide is increasing. Are present in different institutions and organizations. Willing and able to take care of their place in society. But the reality is not free of examples of violations of human rights, including women. I believe that no great religion urges to harm people. This is done because of the human individual choices.
I believe that despite the different rules and habits proper to each culture or religion, a woman has, like the man, his role. Assessment, which is larger and more significant will always be subjective. Each is different and needed. Only their sum forms a complementary picture of the world and mankind, so let every man fulfills its mission as best they can, in accordance with their conscience, religion, worldview, respecting themselves and others.