Bioethical problems- How far can we go?
Progress in the life sciences is giving human beings new power to improve our health and control the development processes of all living species. Concerns about the social, cultural, legal and ethical implications of such progress have led to one of the most significant debates of the past century. A new word has been coined to encompass these concerns: bioethics. It touches most complex problems of the humanity.
Bioethics is a philosophical study about science that involves human and other living creatures directly: medicine and biology. Bioethics is frequently noticeable among disciplines such as: life sciences, biotechnology, medicine, politics, law, philosophy, and theology, in many hard cases in which human life and dignity are in danger.
Bioethical issues has been discussed widely among centuries, lots of views has evolved with grater knowledge. Moment in history from when public attention focused on this case were biomedical experiments following the revelation of Nazi experiments conducted during World War II, later problem of life-ending medicine ethics, modern bioethics though concerns more about today’s biotechnology and it’s possibilities: stem cell research, genetic testing, cloning, gene therapy.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaimed that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status,
Modern society and all humanity nowadays meet problems of unwanted life extinction and it’s termination. How to cope with life that have no chance to express itself and why should we do it after all? Are we in power to decide which life is valuable and which unwanted? Where to sart and when to stop artificial life elongation? Those questions should be answered by each and everyone with solemnity and morality.
Abortion- act of terminating unborn life. All of the arguments pro and against abortion boil down to six specific questions. The first five deal with the nature of the zygote-embryo-fetus growing inside a mother's womb. The last one looks at the morality of the practice. These questions are:
- Is it alive?
- Is it human?
- Is it a person?
- Is it physically independent?
- Does it have human rights?
- Is abortion murder?
Both sides use the same question s to support their logic and morality they just answer them.
An abortion can occur spontaneously due to complications during pregnancy or can be induced, in humans and other species.
An abortion is medically referred to as therapeutic when it is performed to:
- save the life of the pregnant woman;
- preserve the woman's physical or mental health
- terminate pregnancy that would result in a child born with a congenital disorder that would be fatal or associated with significant morbidity[1 or
- Selective reduce the number of fetuses to lower health risks associated with multiple pregnancy
An abortion is referred to as elective when it is performed at the request of the woman "for reasons other than maternal health or fetal disease." Population control and one-child policy in China is often connected with this subject.
Euthanasia- practice of ending a life with mercy to dying person which terminate the pain and suffering. Is also seen as a voluntary suicide or as a murder when it has to be assisted. Proponents typically consider a death that increased suffering to be "wrongful" while opponents typically consider any deliberate death as "wrongful." Other case is life extinction and life support.
“Medicalized killing of a person without the person's consent, whether nonvoluntary (where the person in unable to consent) or involuntary (against the person's will) is not euthanasia: it is murder. Hence, euthanasia can be voluntary only.”
Several governments around the world have legalized voluntary euthanasia: The United Kingdom and United States among others.
All of activities that can increase fertility or lead to impregnation are also controversial:
- In-vitro fertilization
- Artificial uterus (or womb)- a device that allows to replace the process of pregnancy outside of a woman body, current technology does not allows to perform all the development of featus in artificial conditions.
- Artificial insemination
- Three-parent babies- human offspring that contain DNA from 3 parents. Is now researched in China but no fetus was born yet.
- Sperm and eggs (donation)
Transhumanism is symbolized by H+ or h+ and is often used as a synonym for "human enhancement" is an ideological movement or pseudoreligion that supports any kind of way which can improve human health or general condition. Science and technology is method to gain full humanity- transhumanity. Gains are to within those methods reduce poverty, disease, disability, and malnutrition around the globe but also to enhance human bodies at individual level, control the evolution of human and other creatures. Transhumanists are for instance not interested in preservation natural biodiversity and natural systems on any other purpose but to use it. Transhumanist goals can be gained by using: genetic modifications on human embryos in order to create “designer babies”.
Transhumanism has been described by one critics, as the world's most dangerous idea, while proponents claims that it is the "movement that epitomizes the most daring, courageous, imaginative, and idealistic aspirations of humanity"
Are you concerned about bioethical issues?
Are you human or transhuman:)?
Despite ventures and problems biotechnology has bright sides. Do you see any? (watch the film from the link above)